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Wheat - World Supply and Demand Summary

To view a table of this data, click here. To view the data on an individual country, click on that country's name.

China
On average, China produces 108,712 TMT of wheat annually. This makes China the world’s largest wheat producer, producing 42,856 TMT more than India, the world’s second largest wheat producer. However, China also has a population of over 1.2 billion people, and domestic consumption in China averages 112,501 TMT. China is the world’s seventh largest importer of wheat, importing an average of 4,247 TMT of wheat. Variability in production and quality issues also compel China to export a small quantity of wheat, mainly in years of excess, and mainly to neighboring Asian countries. Its exporting policies have made China the twenty-first largest exporter in the world, averaging an export of 657 TMT annually. Also, China ranks first in ending stocks, averaging 61,896 TMT.

As far as national production is concerned, major winter wheat production is primarily in the central area of the nation, while major spring wheat production comes from the northern regions of China. The major growing areas for winter wheat are Shandong and Henan. Shandong produces 21.2 percent and Henan produces 20.4 percent of the nations winter wheat supply. Winter wheat in China is planted in September and October, and it is harvested in late May and June. The main growing areas for spring wheat are Heilongjang and Inner Mongolia. Heilongjiang accounts for 26.5 percent of the nations spring wheat production and Inner Mongolia produces 24.4 percent of all the spring wheat in China. The spring wheat in China is planted in March and April, and it is harvested from mid July through August.

India
India is second largest producer of wheat in the world, averaging an annual production of 65,856 TMT. On average, India consumes 65,283 TMT of wheat, ranking them as the second largest consumer of wheat in the world. India does not produce enough wheat to be self-sufficient. So, to make up the difference, India imports. On average, India imports 990 TMT of wheat, and, for various reasons, exports an average of 767 TMT of wheat. The ending stocks in India average 9,900 TMT, giving India the third largest ending stocks in the world.

India raises almost exclusively winter wheat. The major wheat growing areas in India are located in the northern regions of the country. The state of Uttar Pradesh produces the most wheat in India, accounting for 35 percent of India’s total wheat production. The state of Punjab is the second largest producer of wheat in India, producing 22 percent of the nations total wheat production. The planting of winter wheat begins about the first of October and runs through the end of December. Wheat will usually begin to head in January, with harvest following in March and May.

United States
The United States is the third largest producer of wheat in the world. On average, the United States produces 62,550 TMT of wheat. The United States is the fourth largest consumer of wheat, on average consuming 35,704 TMT. The United States imports, on average, 2,584 TMT and it exports 28,547 TMT, making the U.S. the largest wheat-exporting nation in the world.

In the U.S., hard red winter wheat is planted from the first of September through the end of October. In the southern states, winter wheat heads out during May and the harvest begins at the end of May. As the harvest progresses north through the central U.S. winter wheat belt, heading and harvest are pushed back until harvest finishes in the northern states during mid to late August. The major growing areas for hard red winter wheat are located in the mid-west, centering on Kansas, with a belt running from Texas to the Dakotas and Montana.

Soft red winter wheat planting begins around the first of September, with planting running through the end of October. SRW can be expected to start heading around the first of May, with harvesting beginning at the end of May and running through the end of July. Soft red winter wheat is grown east of the Mississippi River.

Soft white winter wheat is planted around the first of September and should be completely in the ground by mid-November. Heading will begin around mid-May, with harvest beginning around mid-July and running through August. Soft white winter wheat is grown in the Pacific Northwest, mainly centered on southern Washington and northern Oregon.

Durum and dark northern spring wheat have pretty much the same growth cycle. They are planted from mid-April through the end of May. DNS and Durum generally begin heading around mid-June, with harvest beginning in mid-July and running through mid-September. Dark northern spring wheat is grown predominately in North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Durum is grown almost completely in North Dakota and northeastern Montana, with a small amount grown in northern South Dakota.

France
France is the fourth largest producer of wheat in the world and the largest producer of wheat in Europe. The average production of wheat in France is 35,062 TMT, with 18,467 TMT of this amount being consumed domestically in France. This makes France the sixth largest consumer of wheat in the world. Over the past five years France has, on average, imported 1,094 TMT of wheat. France is the third largest exporter of wheat in the world, averaging an exportation of 17,343 TMT of wheat. France’s average ending stocks are 5,153 TMT, ranking them fifth in the world for ending stocks.

Wheat production in France is concentrated to the greatest extent in the northern regions of the country, but to some extent, is grown throughout France. The state of Centre leads the production of wheat in France, producing 16 percent of Frances total wheat supply. The state of Picardie is the seconded largest producer of wheat, accounting for 10 percent of all the wheat that France produces.

Winter wheat is the predominant variety produced in France. Winter wheat is planted from the beginning of October through the end of November. The harvest season begins around the first of July and is usually concluded by the end of August.

Russia
Russia is the fifth largest producer of wheat in the world, averaging an annual production of 34,656 TMT. Russia is the third largest consumer of wheat in the world, consuming an average of 38,011 TMT. Russia also imports an average of 3,187 TMT of wheat, making Russia the ninth largest importer of wheat in the world. Furthermore, on average, Russia exports 78 TMT of wheat. Russia’s average ending stocks are 3,371 TMT, ranking them eight in the world for ending stocks.

As part of the former USSR, Russia accounted for 45 percent of the nations total production of wheat. In Russia, winter wheat is the main variety grown. It is raised chiefly in the western portion of the country around Moscow, north of the Black Sea. Beginning in August and running through the first of October, winter wheat is planted. The wheat begins heading in May, and harvest will begin in July and continue through the end of August.

Canada
Canada, on average, produces 25,717 TMT of wheat, making the nation the sixth largest producer of wheat in the world. Based on the average, Canada consumes 7,922 TMT of wheat. Of this amount, 163 TMT were imported, making Canada the forty-seventh largest importer of wheat. Canada exports an average of 18,385 TMT ranking them second in world exports. Canada’s average ending stocks are 7,197 TMT, ranking Canada as the fourth largest country in ending stocks.

Three different varieties of wheat are predominantly grown in Canada: winter wheat, dark northern spring wheat, and durum wheat. DNS is grown mostly in the southern areas of Canada. Saskatchewan accounts for 55 percent of all the DNS grown in Canada, with Alberta contributing 26 percent to the total DNS wheat grown. The remainder of the spring wheat grown in Canada is raised in Manitoba, which contributes 17 percent to the total spring wheat production. Durum is raised, generally, in the same area that the DNS is raised. The provinces are ranked the same for durum production as they are for spring wheat. Saskatchewan accounts for 76 percent of the durum produced in Canada, Alberta produces 18 percent, and Manitoba produces 6 percent. Both spring wheat and durum follow, generally, the same life cycle. Both are planted around the first of May, with planting running through the first of June. Both can be expected to begin heading around the first of July, with harvest beginning in mid-August and running through the middle of October.

Canadian winter wheat is almost exclusively grown in the province of Ontario. Ontario produces 82 percent of the total winter wheat in Canada, with the remaining winter wheat being grown on the prairies of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Winter wheat planting in Canada begins around first of September and should be completed by the end of October. Winter wheat heads around mid-May, with harvest beginning around the first of July and running through the first part of September.

Australia
Australia is the seventh largest wheat producer in the world, averaging an annual production of 19,290 TMT. Australia’s consumption average is 4,504 TMT. This makes them the world’s twenty-fifth largest consumer. Australia has average imports of a minuscule 51 TMT. On the other hand, exports average 14,936 TMT, which is over 75% of their total production, and makes Australia one of the largest exporters of wheat in the world. Australia also has average ending stocks of 2,411 TMT.

Winter wheat is grown in the southern regions of the country near the coast. The state of Western Australia produces the most wheat in Australia, accounting for 38 percent of the nations total wheat production. The next largest wheat producing state in Australia is New South Wales, which produces 25 percent of Australia’s total wheat. In Australia, winter wheat planting begins around the first of May and runs through the end of July. The Wheat usually begins heading at the end of August, with harvest usually beginning around the first of October and running through the end of December.

Germany
Germany is the eighth largest producer of wheat in the world, averaging an annual production of 19,203 TMT. Of this amount, Germany consumes 15,868 TMT, ranking them as the eighth largest consumer of wheat in the world. Average imports for Germany are 1,856 TMT, and average exports are 5,390 TMT, making Germany the sixth largest wheat exporter in the world.

Winter wheat is grown throughout Germany, but the major growing areas are concentrated in the central part of the nation. Bayren produces 19 percent of Germany’s total wheat production. Niedersachsen is the second largest wheat producing state in Germany, growing 17 percent of all the wheat in Germany. The remainder of the production is evenly spread throughout the rest of the country. The only Varity of wheat that Germany grows in any sort of quantity is winter wheat. The planting season for winter wheat begins around the first of October and runs through the end of the month. Harvest begins the next August and runs through the end of the month.

Pakistan
Pakistan’s average wheat production is 17,628 TMT, making them the ninth largest wheat-producing nation in the world. Pakistan is also a major consumer of wheat. Their average domestic consumption is 19,951 TMT. Pakistan also has an import average of 2,351 TMT of wheat, while they export, on average, 74 TMT.

Most of the winter wheat grown in Pakistan is grown in the eastern region of the nation, adjacent to the India border. The province of Punjab grows the majority of Pakistani wheat, producing 72 percent of the nations total supply. The next largest wheat-producing province is Sind, which produces 17 percent of the total wheat supply. Winter wheat planting begins around the first of October and run through mid-December. Harvest begins in April and is usually completed by mid-June.

Turkey
On average, Turkey produces 16,314 TMT of wheat. The average amount of wheat consumed is 16,459 TMT. Exports for Turkey average 1,635 TMT and imports average 1,605 TMT.

Ukraine
The Ukraine is the eleventh largest producer of wheat in the world, averaging an annual production of 15,330 TMT. On average, the people of the Ukraine consume 14,112 TMT of wheat per year, ranking them as the tenth largest consumer in the world. The Ukraine imports 272 TMT on average, and exports an average of 1,582 TMT.

Major production areas of winter wheat exist throughout the entire Ukraine, except the northern region, which is classified as a minor growing area.

United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is the twelfth largest producer of wheat in the world, averaging an annual production of 15,114 TMT. The United Kingdom is ranked eleventh in the consumption of wheat, consuming an average of 12,698 TMT. The U.K has average imports of 1,432 TMT of wheat and average exports of 3,821 TMT. The ending stocks average for the U.K. is 1,665 TMT.

The United Kingdom has, on average, produced 16 percent of the European Union’s total wheat. The U.K.’s primary area of wheat production is in the southern area of the nation. The southeast quarter of the nation produces the greatest amount of wheat in the U.K, accounting for 22 percent of the nations total production. The east midlands are the second largest producer of wheat in the U.K, producing 20 percent of the nations total wheat. Winter wheat is planted around the first of October, with planting running through the beginning of December. Harvest normally begins around the first of July and concludes at the end of August.

Argentina
Argentina is the thirteenth largest producer of wheat in the world. On average they produce 13,600 TMT of wheat. Argentina’s consumption average is 4,413 TMT. Argentina averages 33 TMT of imports, while exporting 9,238 TMT of wheat. This makes Argentina the fifth largest exporter of wheat in the world.

The Majority of Argentina’s wheat is produced in the southern regions of the country, centered on the province of Buenos Aires. This province produces 63 percent of the nations total wheat. The next largest wheat-producing province in Argentina is Santa Fe. Santa Fe accounts for 17 percent of the nations total wheat production. Argentinean wheat is normally planted from the first of May through the end of July. The wheat plant will then typically begin heading out around the first of September, with harvest season beginning around mid-November and running until mid-January

Iran
Iran is the fourteenth largest producer of wheat in the world, averaging 10,171 TMT produced. Iran is the ninth largest consumer of wheat, consuming on average 15,364 TMT. Iran on average imports 4,790 TMT, making them the world’s fifth largest importer of wheat. At the same time, Iran exports only 5 TMT.

Wheat is grown predominantly in the northeastern and northwestern regions of Iran. There are also small pockets of wheat producing areas throughout the country. For most of the Middle East region, wheat is planted from the first of September through the end of November. The wheat harvest begins around the first of April and runs through the end of August.

Poland
On average, 8,598 TMT of wheat are produced in Poland annually. The consumption average for Poland is 9,346 TMT per year. Poland imports 871 TMT and they export 147 TMT.

Wheat is more or less grown throughout Poland. The province that produces the most, Scheldlce, is located in the mid section of Poland. Scheldlche accounts for 6 percent of the nations wheat production. Wheat is planted in Poland from first of September through the end of October. Harvest starts around the first of June and should be done by the first of August.

Kazakhstan
On average, Kazakhstan produced 8,606 TMT of wheat. The people of Kazakhstan consume 4,830 TMT of wheat. Kazakhstan’s average imports and exports are 20TMT and 3,710 TMT respectively. Kazakhstan’s exports rank eighth in the world.

The only area of significant wheat production is in the Far Eastern portion of the nation, and at that it is only considered a minor growing area.

Italy
Italy’s average wheat production is 7,478 TMT. Average consumption is 11,256 TMT, giving Italy the rank of thirteenth in the world for average consumption. Italy is the third largest importer of wheat in the world, importing an average of 6,371 TMT. Italy’s average wheat exports are 2,718 TMT, ranking Italy as the ninth largest exporter of wheat in the world.

Italy produces both soft wheat and durum. Soft wheat production occurs predominately in the northern regions of the nation. The region of Emilaia-Romagna produces the largest amount of soft wheat, accounting for 20 percent of the nations total soft wheat supply. The area around this region accounts for the remainder of the total wheat production. Durum concentration is, to the greatest extent, in the southern most regions of Italy. The region of Sicila produces the most durum in the nation, accounting for 24 percent of the nations total durum production. The region of Puglia is a close second, accounting for 23 percent of the total durum produced. Both the soft wheat and durum are planted at pretty much the same time, beginning around the first of October and finishing up around the end of November. Soft wheat is harvested around the first of July and running through the end of August. Durum is harvested a little earlier than the soft wheat, beginning around the first of June and ending around the end of July.

Romania
Romania’s average production is 5,520 TMT. Romanian consumption averages 5,121 TMT. Romania’s imports and exports average 245 TMT and 694 TMT respectively.

Wheat is produced all throughout Romania, with the areas of the greatest growing percentage located in the southern regions. The counties of Dolj and Timis are tied for first in wheat production, both producing six percent of the nations total. Romanian wheat planting begins around the first of September and runs through the end of October. Harvest begins around the first of July and runs through the end of August.

Egypt
On average, Egypt produces 5,772 TMT of wheat. Consumption in Egypt is, on average, 12,188 TMT. Egypt’s average imports are 6,493 TMT, making Egypt the second largest importer of wheat in the world. Egypt exports only 2 TMT of wheat in the world market.

Egyptian wheat is produced in a very limited area along the Nile River and is delta plane. Throughout the Middle East, wheat is planting begins around the first of September and usually runs through the end of November. Harvest begins around the first of April and runs through the end of August.

Information provided courtesy of the USDA Economic and Statistics System and the USDA/NOAA Joint Agricultural Weather Facility.

Related Links

World Production Calendar

World Supply/Demand Summary

[Report Descriptions]

Crop Production
Prospective Plantings
Crop Progress
Export Sales
Supply & Demand Estimates
Grain Stocks

World Production Maps

 US Durum
 US (HRS)
 US (HRW)
 US (SRW)
 US (White)
 Canada Durum
 Canada Spring
 Canada Winter
 Poland Winter
 Bulgaria
 Germany
 Hungary
 Italy Durum
 Italy Soft
 France
 Romania
 Spain Durum
 Spain Soft
 Sweden
 United Kingdom
 Argentina
 Australia Winter
 South Africa
 China
 Middle East Winter
 Pakistan Winter
 India Winter